Here, in Ravenna on the coast of Italy, Arian Goths and Catholic Romans competed to produce an unrivaled concentration of buildings and astonishing mosaics. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until the invasion of the Lombards in 751. Afterwards its territory was settled also by the Senones, especially the southern countryside of the city (that wasn't part of the lagoon), the Ager Decimanus. The exarchate was broken up by revolts and invasions after 726. Ravenna consisted of houses built on piles on a series of small islands in a marshy lagoon – a situation similar to Venice several centuries later. Odoacer ruled as King of Italy for 13 years, but in 489 the Eastern Emperor Zeno sent the Ostrogoth King Theodoric the Great to re-take the Italian peninsula. Ravenna was briefly the capital of the Western Roman Empire, then the Capital of Theodoric's Gothic state and then the capital of the Byzantine possessions in northern Italy. The Roman empire had collapsed in 476 but, wonderfully, a part of it survived and flourished — the eastern half, with its great capital at Constantinople and the Italic outpost of Ravenna as its gateway into northern Adriatic coastlands and beyond into present-day Sicily. Ravenna then gradually came under the direct authority of the Popes, although this was contested by the archbishops at various times. Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. Judith Herrin’s recent book contains a sweeping and engrossing history of Ravenna from the moment Honorius took up residence there, through the thriving period of Gothic rule (493-540), and culminating in the two centuries (540-751) when the city was a western outpost of the eastern Roman empire. The nearest commercial airports are those of Forlì, Rimini and Bologna. The last of the Da Polenta, Ostasio III, was ousted by the Republic of Venice in February 1441, and the city was annexed to the Venetian territories in the Treaty of Cremona. Ravenna became the capital of the Western Roman Empire in 402 when the Emperor Honorius moved the imperial capital to escape Alaric and his Visigoths. Now, although the empire may have fallen in the west, consider that it continued to exist in the east, since Constantine’s move and creation of the city Constantinople, which became the new capitol of the entirety of the Roman empire. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Its home ground is Stadio Massimo Sbrighi of the fraction with 1,000 seats. The team's colors are white and blue. It was the capital city of the Western Roman Empire from 402 until the empire collapsed in 476. It was in fact a capital – not once, not twice, but actually three times! It had developed into a major port on the Adriatic . It then served as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom until it was re-conquered in 540 by the Byzantine Empire. At the end of the fourth century, as the power of Rome faded and Constantinople became the seat of empire, a new capital city was rising in the West. From 540 to 600, Ravenna's bishops embarked upon a notable building program of churches in Ravenna and in and around the port city of Classe. In 1512, during the Holy League wars, Ravenna was sacked by the French following the Battle of Ravenna. In ad 402 the danger of barbarian invasions compelled the Western Roman emperor Honorius to move his court from Rome to Ravenna. The Lombards, under King Liutprand, occupied Ravenna in 712, but were forced to return it to the Byzantines. A riveting history of the city that led the West out of the ruins of the Roman Empire. As the capital city of the Western Roman Empire for 250 years and a major port of entry for the Eastern (Byzantine) Empire, Ravenna reflects in its art and architecture a fusion of Roman architectural forms with Byzantine mosaics and other decoration. Over the next 300 years, a network of canals diverted nearby rivers and drained nearby swamps, thus reducing the possibility of flooding and creating a large belt of agricultural land around the city. ... (From the Ashes of the Roman Empire): The following resources relate to the end of the Roman Empire and the Fall of Rome. The Roman Empire had been in relative decline since the beginning of the barbarian invasions and Rome , the symbolical heart and largest city of the Western Empire, was sacked in 410 by the Visigoths and … Its principal enterprises include petroleum and natural-gas refining, the production of fertilizers and synthetic rubber, and the processing of oilseeds. During World War II, troops of 4th Princess Louise Dragoon Guards - 5th Canadian Armoured Division and the British 27th Lancers entered and liberated Ravenna on 5 December 1944. Ravenna was also selected because its harbor was convenient for communication and trade with Constantinople. The city was also raised to the status of an archbishopric in 438. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Nothing remains of the ancient Roman structures in Ravenna or of its harbour at Classis. Honorius did so because it was easily defended from its location on the lagoon. Mausoleum of Theuderic, c. 520, at Ravenna, Italy. Theodoric, following his imperial predecessors, also built many splendid buildings in and around Ravenna, including his palace church Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, an Arian cathedral (now Santo Spirito) and Baptistery, and his own Mausoleum just outside the walls. Sometimes called the city of mosaics, Ravenna is known for its spectacular early Christian mosaics, dating from the fifth and sixth centuries, that decorate the walls of its churches and monuments.Ravenna was the western capital of the Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Empire in Europe from early fifth to the eighth centuries and the mosaic art shows a Byzantine influence. In his capacity as a soldier suddenly pitted against Anthemius, since he had switched sides to join with … However, in 409, King Alaric I of the Visigoths simply bypassed Ravenna, and went on to sack Rome in 410 and to take Galla Placidia, daughter of Emperor Theodosius I, hostage. As such, Ravenna was embellished with magnificent monuments. After a short period under an Imperial vicar, Ravenna was returned to the Papal States in 1248 and again to the Traversari until, in 1275, the Da Polenta established their long-lasting seigniory. The city is inland, but is connected to the Adriatic Sea by a canal. After many vicissitudes, Galla Placidia returned to Ravenna with her son, Emperor Valentinian III, due to the support of her nephew Theodosius II. The church was begun by Bishop Ecclesius under the Ostrogothic queen Amalasuntha (d. 535) and was consecrated in 547. Although it is an inland city, Ravenna is connected to the Adriatic Sea by the Candiano … The church also has finely executed mosaics depicting processions of male and female saints. The Unesco recognizes them as a World Heritage Sites for the decoration of the … Ravenna was important in history as the capital of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century ad and later (6th–8th century) of Ostrogothic and Byzantine Italy. In 1859 Ravenna proclaimed its union with the kingdom of Sardinia, which became the kingdom of Italy in 1861. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Adjoining the cathedral is an octagonal baptistery containing fine Byzantine mosaics from the 5th century. Judith Herrin's book [Ravenna] explains by recounting the city's life from 402, when it became the capital of the Roman Empire in the West, to 751, when the Lombards took over. The entire upper surface of the mausoleum’s interior is covered with mosaics on a blue ground. Ravenna (/rəˈvɛnə/ rə-VEN-ə, Italian: [raˈvenna], also locally [raˈvɛnna] (listen); Romagnol: Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy. The Church of Santa Maria in Porto Fuori, built after 1069, was, until its destruction in World War II, the only important surviving building of the later European Middle Ages in Ravenna. Ravenna’s other surviving monuments include the following. Thereafter it was subject to papal rule with only minor interruptions. The fame of Ravenna rests instead on the quality and quantity of its 5th–8th-century Christian monuments. Odoacer became the first barbarian king of the western empire. The Church of St. Francis (San Francesco) has a small annex containing the tomb of the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. Theodoric took Ravenna in 493, supposedly slew Odoacer with his own hands, and Ravenna became the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy. It was returned to the Papal States in 1814. Ravenna Airport is located in Ravenna. The northern Italian city of Ravenna, situated on the Adriatic coast, south of Venice, is famous for both its late Roman architecture and its masterpieces of mosaic art, derived from its time as the capital of the Western Roman Empire (c.402-76), and later as an imperial Exarchate of the Byzantine Empire … Ravenna [ra'ven:a] is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. King Pepin of the Franks attacked the Lombards under orders of Pope Stephen II. With the fall of the Western Empire in 476, it became the capital of the first barbarian ruler of Italy, Odoacer (reigned 476–493), who in turn surrendered it to the Ostrogothic king Theuderic (reigned 493–526) in 493. In 1441 Venice was able to establish direct rule over Ravenna, but in 1509 the city was returned to the Papal States. Shortly after, the Migration Period, involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and by the Huns of Attila, led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. Ravenna was ruled by Venice until 1509, when the area was invaded in the course of the Italian Wars. Afterwards, the city formed the centre of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until the invasion of the Lombards in 751. The imperial capital was moved from Rome to Milan and finally to Ravenna by Emperor Honorius—the ruler of the western half of the empire—in 402 c.e. The president is Marcello Missiroli and the manager is Enrico Zaccaroni. "Ravenna: Capital of Empire, Crucible of Europe. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. [7] The first settlement is variously attributed to (and then has seen the copresence of) the Thessalians, the Etruscans and the Umbrians. These are. For other uses, see, Dante's tomb exterior and interior, built in 1780, Generally speaking, adjectival "Ravenna" and "Ravennate" are more common for most adjectival uses—the, Deborah M. Deliyannis, Ravenna in Late Antiquity (Cambridge University Press, 2010), for this and much of the information that follows, Learn how and when to remove this template message, the last person to hold the title of emperor in the West, List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy, "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011", "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018", Tourism in Ravenna – Official site – History, https://www.academia.edu/1166147/_The_Fall_and_Decline_of_the_Roman_Urban_Mind_, https://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/remembrance/history/second-world-war/canada-Italy-1943-to-1945, "Sito Ufficiale – Ufficio Turismo del Comune di Ravenna – I grandi scrittori", https://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/oct/23/jrr-tolkien-middle-earth-annotated-map-blackwells-lord-of-the-rings?CMP=fb_gu, Ravenna's early history and its monuments - Catholic Encyclopedia, City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto, Arab-Norman Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale, Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.), Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps, Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ravenna&oldid=998832259, Municipalities of the Province of Ravenna, Mediterranean port cities and towns in Italy, Articles needing additional references from September 2014, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Romagnol-language text, Articles containing Italian-language text, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Pages using infobox settlement with possible demonym list, Pages using infobox settlement with image map1 but not image map, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010, Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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