Rates should be increased by 200,000 seeds/week to a maximum of 2.2 million seeds/acre. Copyright © 2018 Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, All Rights Reserved. On chernozem soils and in arid regions, seeds of winter wheat are planted to a depth of 5 – 6 cm. The crop prevents wind and water erosion, reduces compaction in springtime, diversifies soil nutrients and lowers risk of disease buildup, and the broken-down straw is high in phosphorus. This in turn pushes winter wheat planting back. Winter wheat seeded at 1″ seeding depth (left) vs 1/2″ seeding depth (right). Would you believe that some growers are adding winter wheat to their rotation to improve soil health? If conditions are dry during planting, adjust the depth to ensure the seed is in moisture. Attention to detail starts with planting your crop on time (Figure 1)! Red winter wheat is typically sown directly into the ground in late September through the middle of October. OMAFRA Publications 811: Agronomy Guide. Wheat grows best in 70 to 75 degree Fahrenheit ((21 to 24 degrees Celsius) weather, so you should plant your wheat when the weather is approaching that temperature (and eventually rising). Figure 1: Updated Optimum Planting Date Map for Winter Wheat in Ontario. Several long-term (14 & 15 years) crop rotations studies (Monmouth and Perry, Illinois and Ridgetown, Ontario) have shown including winter wheat in the rotation with corn and soybeans increases water stable aggregates, which is a very sensitive and good indicator for soil physical health (Figure 1). Some parts of this site work best with JavaScript enabled. Red winter wheat is an excellent cover crop to plant in the fall to infuse nutrients back in turned soil and prepare the ground plot for seeds and plants cultivated in it the following spring. If, for example, you live in the London area, the optimum planting date for your region falls between September 25 and September 30. The 2018 growing season had its challenges with a cool, wet spring followed by hot, dry weather during the critical grain fill period. The varieties that are now grown in Ontario are thus either introductions from the Old World, or descendants of such introductions. The time to plant winter wheat varies considerably from place to place. Classification into spring or winter wheat is common and traditionally refers to the season during which the crop is grown. Eastern Ontario is bucking the provincial trend, as a late soybean harvest and wet weather prevented many farmers from planting winter wheat. Wheat fits into the rotation after soybeans in Ontario. You may say to yourself “Yes, we know a good wheat crop starts with planting! Hard Red Winter used to occupy up to 18 percent of wheat acres in the province, but that number has dropped to an estimated 7 per cent in recent years and Ontario mills — including P&H and ADM — have taken notice. But just how late is too late when it comes to planting winter wheat in Ontario? In a recap of the winter wheat growing season in the province, Grain Farmers of Ontario senior agronomist Marty Vermey wrote that just as pollination was starting in the province, temperatures climbed and the rain stopped. Winter wheat is seeded in late August or early September into a shallow seedbed to allow the plant to access enough water to germinate quickly and grow for four to five weeks. A producer could add profit by growing forage crops after wheat for themselves or getting paid by a neighbor with cattle, moving the increased yield and profit in corn and soybean years attributed to wheat back to the wheat accrual budget. L.A. Hunt, Department of Crop Science, Ontario Agricultural College . Cash crop farmer Dan Caron, who farms at Port Lambton in Lambton County, got in an early crop of winter wheat this year. Sign up and receive the latest posts right in your inbox. Although winter wheat is quite competitive, weed pressure can have an impact on tillering, ultimately reducing yields. Ontario’s five-year planting average is 869,000 acres. In this rotation, two warm season crops are grown with one being a grass and one being a broadleaf with one year between the same crop types. Many other species of plants undergo vernalization, including a variety of fruit tree species and annual and biennial flowering plants. The southern area of this region may use wheat as pasture. Prepare to plant winter wheat in the fall, approximately 6 to 8 weeks before the soil freezes, as this allows for strong root growth. There are several varieties of winter wheat grown in Ontario, and wheat breeders are interested in learning more about and furthering the crop’s resistance to major diseases by developing new varieties. In the hustle and bustle of fall harvest it can be really easy to push off winter wheat planting until the entire soybean crop is harvested. Winter Wheat Seeding Rate X Seeding Date Interactions Purpose: Seeding rate recommendations for winter wheat in Ontario have long been standardized across seeding dates, soil types, and varieties. Ontario winter wheat producers recently completed their 2017 harvest and are preparing for the 2018 planting season. Cash crop farmer Dan Caron, who farms at Port Lambton in Lambton County, got in an early crop of winter wheat this year. However, Ontario research has shown a 1.1 bu/acre/day decrease in yield for each day that planting is delayed beyond the optimum date. The definition of soil health by the USDA-NRCS “soil health is the continued capacity of a soil to function as a vital, living ecosystem that sustains, plants, animals, and humans.”. The closer you are to one line means the optimum planting date is closer to that end of the range. You can opt-out at any time by clicking the unsubscribe link at the bottom of any email. These aspects of soil health were increased by adding wheat into the rotation regardless of the tillage system (conventional or no-till). Winter wheat (usually Triticum aestivum) are strains of wheat that are planted in the autumn to germinate and develop into young plants that remain in the vegetative phase during the winter and resume growth in early spring. Logistical hurdles of only having one or two fields was solved by finding another operator to custom drill and harvest the wheat crop or starting a new custom drilling business themselves. Dwayne Beck, a professor with South Dakota State University has long talked about rotational intensity and crop diversity. For winter wheat, the physiological stage of heading (when the ear first emerges) is delayed until the plant experiences vernalization, a period of 30 to 60 days of cold winter te… Some grow the crop for bedding or feed, but Kennes says the major benefit of incorporating winter wheat into rotation is the benefits to the soil. When planting later the winter wheat plant has less time available to develop roots and tillers. Starter fertilizer provides nutrients for early growth and promotes root development, ultimately improving winter survival and crop uniformity the following spring. The southern area of this region may use wheat as pasture. When the upper layers of the soil dry out, the depth of sowing seeds on chernozems can be increased to 8 – 10 cm. As many farmers are getting ready to begin harvest, farmers who grow winter wheat are preparing to plant. 5. There seems to be a trend to decrease crop diversity instead of increase it, for example, in southeast Nebraska there are far less acres and farms growing oats, winter wheat, alfalfa, and grain sorghum. It is generally not recommended to seed more than 10-14 days prior to the optimum date for your region. First, it is important to know what the purpose of a PGRs is. 105 Ag. The crop technology team with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), faculty at the University of Guelph and Ontario field crop producers continually work together to find ways to improve field crop production. Fall weed control enables you to better manage herbicide resistant Canada fleabane and also provides an opportunity to control perennial and winter annual weeds. OMAFRA cereals specialist Peter Johnson estimates there are about 610,000 to 615,000 acres planted in Ontario, down from 1.06 million acres planted in 2013. Most of the 2019 wheat crop was graded a No. Winter wheat production for New York is forecasted at 7.43 million bushels, up 24 percent from the 2014 crop. Consider the move to fall weed control! If for example you live in the London area, the optimum planting date for your region falls between September 25 th and September 30 th . While it may come as a surprise, you can plant winter wheat too early due to the increased risk of snow mould, lodging and Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV). “It went perfectly. Table 1. If the weather turns dry during planting, adjust the seeding depth so that the seed is being placed into moisture. Adjusting your seeding depths and populations will help compensate for the less than ideal conditions that may occur at planting. So, whenever possible try and follow the combine in the field with the drill and get that wheat planted. The next four to eight weeks (October to November) allow the plant to vernalize (giving the plant the signal to flower next spring) and acclimate to the cold (harden off for the winter). Plant winter wheat roughly one inch (2.5 centimetres) deep to prevent the crop from being subject to harsh winter conditions. Next, ensure you are using a starter fertilizer. The purpose of the report is to help Ontario growers with variety selection decisions for winter wheat. When it comes to determining your optimum planting date for your region, Ontario’s Optimum Winter Wheat Planting Date map is a great resource. More importantly it allows for proper fungicide timing in the spring and means one less thing to worry about in the busy planting season. Figure 2. They made sure their winter wheat crop had the best start possible. However, not all producers have the same business model and soil health goals. Also double check that all planting equipment is in good working order well before you get to the field to avoid any further delays. Several long-term (14 & 15 years) crop rotations studies (Monmouth and Perry, Illinois and Ridgetown, Ontario) have shown including winter wheat in the rotation with corn and soybeans increases water stable aggregates, which is a very sensitive and good indicator for soil physical health (Figure 1). In eastern and northern Ontario, for example, snow mould – caused by fungi that attacking snow-covered cereals – can be an issue for winter wheat that developed too much biomass early in the season. Attaining a consistent seed depth is important in order to increase the probability of … According to Agricorp, just under 1 million acres of winter wheat has been planted so far in Ontario. The program encourages and supports farmers in eastern Nebraska to move from a strict corn-soybean rotation to a successful flex or targeted crop rotation where some winter wheat acres are considered each year and strategically placed. Ontario’s five-year planting average is 869,000 acres. Yield Response to Starter Fertilizer – Dry 7-34-20 (OMAFRA Publication 811: Agronomy Guide). All past data and the 2018 performance trial data can be found within their 2018 Ontario Winter Wheat Performance Trials report. Farmers in Ontario were believed to have seeded roughly 700,000 acres of winter wheat in the fall of 2011, down from the usual one million, he said. Looking at some of these challenges, let’s address how farmers could overcome some of these barriers. The fear of learning to grow a new crop was reduced through peer learning, educational programs, a dedicated local website with resources, and working with a trusted adviser or producer who have added winter wheat into their farming practice. ONTARIO’S OPTIMUM WINTER WHEAT PLANTING DATE MAP. The cause of these measurable difference is likely due to the dense fibrous root system of wheat and the nitrogen derived from wheat root deposits. In order to successfully do this, ensure all soybean residue is evenly spread and that the drill can easily cut through the residue. winter wheat production was to apply a low rate of, or no N fertilizer at planting, then broadcast the required N as Ammonium Nitrate in early spring (Fowler, 2002). Chances increase for good establishment and successful over-wintering if it can be planted in late September or early October. Lastly, be prepared to adjust! Yield Response to Starter Fertilizer – Liquid 6-24-6 (OMAFRA Publication 811: Agronomy Guide), Table 2. A diverse crop rotation appears to be the toughest practice to adopt. In winter wheat country – from Texas to Nebraska – winter wheat is generally planted the end of September through mid-October. With a great deal of soybeans being planted later than normal, harvest is pushed back as well this year. There are several reasons for this decline including lack of profitability, logistics, lack of a livestock enterprise, and world supply/demand, among others. Adding winter wheat to a crop rotation comes with some economic challenges and logistical hurdles such as planting and harvesting only one or two fields of wheat and the learning curve that comes with growing a new crop. Several long-term (14 & 15 years) crop rotations studies (Monmouth and Perry, Illinois and Ridgetown, Ontario) have shown including winter wheat in the rotation with corn and soybeans increases water stable aggregates, which is a very sensitive and good indicator for soil physical health (Figure 1). In 2007, a record 1.25 million acres of winter wheat were seeded in Ontario. Johnson speculated that roughly 650,000 acres of winter wheat will be harvested in the province once those operations begin. 1 or No. Winter wheat (usually Triticum aestivum) are strains of wheat that are planted in the autumn to germinate and develop into young plants that remain in the vegetative phase during the winter and resume growth in early spring. There is opportunity for producers in eastern Nebraska to include winter wheat, a cool season crop, in their rotation. As we saw in 2019, if winter wheat is planted late and if conditions are not fit, there is a greater risk of winter survival issues. Sustainability of the family farm small business includes balancing short-term and long-term profitability. Spring wheat can be planted as early as you can work the soil. One soil health practice that can be challenging for most farms to adopt is a more diverse crop rotation. If time and weather do not permit, winter wheat might not get planted in the fall. PGRs can be applied to winter wheat to reduce plant height and increase stem thickness. Higher seeding rates when planting is delayed will also assist with the reduced tillering that may occur before winter. Attention to detail starts with planting your crop on time (Figure 1)! A Winter Wheat Works Initiative was started in 2016. Acreage for harvest is forecast at 118 thousand acres, up 23 thousand from last year. Seeding depth. The fall can be a busy time with soybean harvest and winter wheat planting occurring simultaneously, but when it comes to winter wheat, time is money. Adding a crop to your current rotation could benefit your integrated pest management plan by helping break disease cycles, control weeds, limit insect and other pest infestations. Nice, dry conditions, the ground worked up nicely,” he said. If planting is delayed, rates should be increased by 200,000 seeds/week to a maximum of 2.2 million seeds/acre. Pick fields that can gain more from the crop diversity, such as those plagued with a disease or insects, while improving soil health. We’ve heard this over and over again!” Yet, many are still not giving their winter wheat crop the attention it deserves at planting. When it comes to determining your optimum planting date for your region, Ontario’s Optimum Winter Wheat Planting Date map (Figure 1) is a great resource. Overcoming some of the economic challenges included increasing awareness of the positive basis/cash price locally and finding opportunities to sell straw. 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